of Potentially Modifiable Type II Diabetic Risk Factors Among Elderly African-Americans.
The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of potentially modifiable risk factors
(RF) for Non-Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (NIDDM) in low income African-Americans. A voluntary convenience sample of
residents without diagnosed NIDDM [N=20; Males (M) n=4, 64 ± 5.5 yrs.; Females (F) n=16, 74 ± 9.8 yrs] was taken from two federally subsidized independent-living long-term-care facilities.
Data for the following variables were collected during two testing sessions: fasting capillary whole blood glucose (FBG),
fasting capillary whole blood triglycerides (TG), and HDL cholesterol using the finger-stick method; blood pressure (BP),
body composition using bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) [Xitron Technologies], skinfold (SK) and girth measurements
‘including saggital diameter (SAG) and waist circumference (WAIST)]; and, Diabetes Risk Assessment Test, a seven item
questionnaire from the American Diabetes Association (ADA). Ten subjects (M=2, F=8) had FBG’s that met the elevated
(FBG>110mg/dl) or positive diagnosis (FBG>126mg/dl) for FBG set by the ADA for NIDDM. Ten participants had TG>200, six of whom
were currently taking cholesterol-lowering medications. Twelve subjects had elevated BP, despite current administration of
BP-lowering medications. Mean values for BIA percent body fat (%BF) were 43.9% and 39.8% for women and men respectively. Fat-Free
Mass (FFM) by BIA appeared to be underestimated when compared to SK FFM, possibly due to lower total body water in this group
of subjects. SAG [33.1 and 36.3 cm for men and women, respectively] and WAIST [102 and 104 cm for men and women, respectively]
were indicative of increased risk for heart disease. Of the twenty participants nearly all had one of more RF for NIDDM, suggesting
the need for further investigation of, and more diligent screening for NIDDM in this population.